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<nettime> 999.6 unconstitutional
human being on Wed, 6 Aug 2003 18:25:28 +0200 (CEST)


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<nettime> 999.6 unconstitutional


unconstitutional: not according to the constitution

[Roget's International Thesaurus, 4th edition]

999.6 ADJS _illegal, _unlawful, _illegitimate,
_illicit, nonlicit, nonlegal, lawless,
wrongful, _against_the_law, unauthorized,
unallowed, impermissible, unwarranted,
unwarrantable, unofficial; unstatutory;
_unconstitutional, nonconstitutional;
flawed, irregular, contrary to law;
actionable, chargeable, justiciable;
triable, punishable; _criminal,
_felonious; _outlaw, _outlawed;
_contraband, bootleg, black-market;
under-the-table, under-the-counter;
anarchic, anarchistic,     anomic.



-----------------------------------------
excerpts from Origins. A Short Etymology
Dictionary of Modern English. Eric Patridge.
c. MCMLVIII. Greenwich House publishing. USA.

==========================================
bureau; bureaucrat, -cratic, -cracy; burlesque,
==========================================

adjective hence noun and verb.

~Burlesque, adopted from EF-F, comes from It
~burlesco, adjective of ~burla, jest, joke,
  mockery, ? from VL * ~burrula, a flock of
  wool, diminutive of LL ~burra, shaggy garmet,
  (originally) coarse hair, perhaps elliptical
  for ~lana~burra, from ~burrus, ruddy, from the
  synonym Gr ~purros, from ~pur, fire (compare
  to FIRE). Now, LL ~burra has apparently a VL
  variant *~bura, whence OF-F ~bure, with OF-
  MF diminutive of ~burel (suffix ~-el), wooden
  fabric, adopted by E (now obsolete), whence
  OF-F ~bureau, a coarse woolen cloth, used
  for covering tables; hence, a desk; hence,
  an office; when E ~bureau, (mostly) office.
  The F word has three notable derivatives:
  ~bureaucrate, when E ~bureaucrat (compare
  the element ~-crat, as in ARISTOCRAT);
  ~bureaucratie, whence ~bureaucracy; and
  ~bureaucratique, whence ~bureacratic.


  EF - Early Modern French (1500-1700)
  F  - French
  It - Italian
  VL - Vulgar (or Low) Latin
  LL - Late Latin (c A.D. 180-600)
  Gr - Greek
  OF - Old French
  MF - Medieval French (CC13-15)
  E  - English
  OF - Old French

   --

  [from New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary...]

  bureau: noun. a chest of drawers (especially
  with a mirror) for a bedroom || a writing
  desk with drawers || a government department
  or its subdivision || an organization or
  agency [F. = office, desk]

  bureaucracy: noun. government by officials
  || officialdom, the routine world of
  regulations || government officials.

  autocrat: an absolute ruler, a despot ||
  someone who insists on his own way and
  will not defer to others.

  autocracy: government by a single absolute
  ruler || a state so governed.

  dictator: noun. an autocrat, an absolute
  ruler || someone who acts like a petty
  tyrant.

  dictatorial: adj. imperious, autocratic.

  dictatorship: noun. the office oor period of
  power of a dictator || a form of government
  in which power is held by a dictator without
  effective constitutional checks.

  dictum: an authorative saying || a maxim.

  maxim: noun. a succinct general truth, moral
  reflection or rule of conduct.

  authoritarian: 1. adjective. favoring, or
  relating to, the theory that respect for
  authority is of greater importance than
  individual liberty || domineering. 2.
  n. a person supporting this theory ||
  economist who espouses government actions
  to direct economic trends.

  authoritarian personality: (psych.) a
  complex of personality traits including
  rigid adherence to conventional values,
  uncritical submission to moral authorities,
  aggressive attitudes towards social deviants,
  preoccupation with power and toughness, and
  a generalized hostility.

  authoritative: adj. coming from an official
  source or from an appropriate authority ||
  fully expert || with an air of command ~an
  ~authoratative ~tone ~of ~voice.

  authority: n. the right and power to command
  and be obeyed, or to do something || such
  power, or proof of such power, entrusted to
  another || an official body which controls
  a particular department or activity || the
  government, those in charge || someone whose
  knowledge and opinions command respect and
  belief || the power of such knowledge || a
  book or other writing which is trusted or
  quoted as evidence, or its author || evidence
  or reasons for a statement.

  authorize: to give legal power or right to ||
  to give permission for || to delegate power to
  || officially approved or appointed, holding
  or done with the necessary rights or powers.

  liberty: n. the condition of being free to
  choose, esp. as between ways of acting or
  living, with an implication of wisdom and
  voluntary restraint (cf. LICENSE) || the
  right to do as one pleases || the condition
  of being free from physical confinment or
  captivity || authorized, possessing the
  right ~I~am~not~at~liberty~to~tell~you.

  control: 1. to govern, exercise control
  over || to restrain || to regulate || to
  test or verify (an experiment) by setting
  up a control in which all factors except
  the variant being tested are kept identical.
  2. n. power, authority || restraint || self-
  restraint || the right of administering or
  supervising || a means of safe-guarding the
  constitution etc. or regulating the economic
  life of a nation || a person who acts as a
  check || a standard of comparison or check
  in an experiment || (spiritualism) a spirit
  said to actuate the utterances of the medium.

  totalitarian: adj. of a form of government or
  state in which the lives and actions of every
  individual, and every enterprise, are controlled
  by a dictator or dictatorial caucus.

  total war: war in which the whole population
  of a country is involved, and to which all its
  resources are devoted, waged against the whole
  population and resources of the enemy, civilian
  as well as military.



  ==========================================
  govern, -ance, -ess, -or; Gouverneur;
  gubernatorial; cybernetics.
  ==========================================

  1. 'To Govern' comes from OF-MF ~governor
  (F ~gou-): L ~gubenare (s ~gubern-), to steer
  or pilot, hence to govern; synonomous Gr
  ~kuberman, perhaps of Mediterranean stock,
  if neither Thracian nor Macedonian; perhaps
  compare with Skt ~kubhanyús (s ~kubhan-),
  adjective 'dancing, pirouetting' (steering
  one's steps). The derivatives MF ~governance,
  MF ~governesse, OF-MF ~government, OF-MF
  ~governeor, account for the next four words;
  ~Gouverneur (Morris) is the F ~gouverneur.

  2. L derivative ~gubernaculum (suffix ~-aculum)
  is adopted by An; agent ~gubernator leads to E
  ~gubernatorial (adjective ~-ial).

  3. Gr ~kuberman, to steer, control, has
  derivative adjective ~kubernetikos, skilled
  in steering, etc., whence, as if from
  * ~ta~kubernetika, the modern ~cybernetics,
  the science of vast computators and
  'mechanical brains'.


   OF  - Old French
   MF  - Medieval French (CC13-15)
   F   - French
   s   - stem
   Gr  - Greek
   Skt - Sanskrit
   L   - Latin
   E   - English
   *   - before a wordd indicates a presumed
    	    word, or form of a word, or sense
    	
   --

  [from New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary...]

  govern: v.t. to control and direct, rule ||
  to be dominant in, determine || to restrain,
  control || to serve as or constitute a law
  or rule for || to control the speed or power
  of (a machine) esp. by automatic control.

  governess: noun. a woman employed to teach
  children in their own homes.

  government: noun. a governing, nationwide
  rule, authoritative control || a system of
  governing || the ministers who govern the
  country.

  freedom: noun. enjoyment of personal liberty,
  of not being a slave nor a prisoner || the
  enjoyment of civil rights (freedom of speech,
  freedom of assembly etc.) generally associated
  with constitutional government || the state
  of not being subjected to determining forces
  || liberty in acting and choosing || immunity
  to or release from obligations, undesirable
  states of being etc. ~freedom from taxation,
  ~freedom from fear || ability to move with
  ease || excessive familiarity || unrestricted
  use or enjoyment || (with 'from') an absence
  of, ~freedom from controls || (in the arts)
  spontaneity unfettered by rules and conventions
  || a privilege conferred on someone to do
  {him or her} an honor.

  constitution: noun. the act of constituting,
  a setting up || the total physical condition
  of the body || total moral or mental makeup,
  or way in which something is made up || the
  set of principles adopted by a state or
  society for its government || a decree or
  ordinance. -- a political constitution lays
  down the manner and means by which power
  shall be exercised by the executive,
  legislature and judicature. Some countries,
  e.g. the U.S.A., have a written constitution.
  Others have unwritten constitutions, although
  as in Great Britain, there may be many written
  rules of law: e.g. Bill of Rights, et cetera...
  Constitutions are defined as flexible or rigid
  according to the ease with which they may be
  amended: e.g. the U.S. constitution provides
  for a long and difficult process of amendment,
  whereas in Britain the constitution may be
  modified simply by a parliamentary majority.

  constitutionalism: noun. a constitutional
  system of government || adherence to the
  principles of such government.

  constitutionalist: noun. a supporter of
  constitutional government || a writer on
  or student of constitutional government.

  constitutionality: noun. the state or
  quality of being constitutional.

  constitutional law: the collection of rules
  which defines the powers, organization and
  responsibilities of central and local
  government. In the U.S.A. the term is
  restricted to the law that is handed down
  by the courts in interpreting the written
  constitution.

  cybernetics: noun. the study of of the
  operation of control and communication
  systems. It deals with both biological
  and man-made machinery. [~steersman]


==========================================
democracy, democrat, democratic.
==========================================

1. ~Democrat derives from EF-F ~démocrate,
back-formation from MF-F ~démocratie (whence
E ~democracy), itself from LL ~democratia,
from Gr ~demokratia: ~demo-, combining-form
of ~demos, the people + ~-kratia, from ~kratos,
power. ~Democratic: MF-F ~democratique: ML
~democraticus: Gr ~demokratikos, adjective
of ~demokratia. Gr ~demos perhaps derives
from ~daiomai, I divide, akin to OIr ~dam,
troop, company, and Skt ~dati, to distribute.
(Compare with DEMON.)


  EF  - Early Modern French (1500-1700)
  MF  - Medieval French (CC13-15)
  F   - French
  E   - English
  LL  - Late Latin (c A.D. 180-600)
  ML  - Medieval Latin
  Gr  - Greek
  OIr - Old Irish
  Skt - Sanskrit

  --

  [from New Lexicon Webster's Dictionary...]

  Democritus: (460-370 B.C.)
  Greek philosopher who developed still further
  the atomist theory of his teacher Leucippus.

  Leucippus of Miletus (5th c. B.C.): Greek
  philospher, originator of the atomist theory
  of matter.

  atomism: noun. (~philosophy) the doctrine,
  especially as taught by the Greek philosphers
  Leucippus and Democritus, that all matter
  consists of different arrangements of a
  limited number of indivisible particles
  or atoms.

  demon: a person relentless in some specified
  respect || an indwelling compulsive force.
  [L. daemon, a spirit]

  democracy: noun. a government by the people,
  usually through elected representatives ||
  a state so governed || (pop.) social equality.

  republic: a form of government in which the
  head of state is an elected president rather
  than a monarch || a form of government in
  which the sovereign power is widely vested
  in the people either directly or through
  elected representatives || a state with
  either of these forms of government || a
  society whose members are equally engaged
  in the same activity. [fr. F. ~republique
  or L. ~respublica fr. ~res, affair +
  ~publicus, public] {public affair}

  representation: n. a representing or being
  represented || something wich represents ||
  (law) a statement accepted as true and as a
  reason for entering into a contract.

  representative: 1. adj. serving to represent,
  esp. as being an example of or having the
  general character of something whole || of,
  marked by or based on a system of represent-
  ation by elected delegates, ~representative
  ~government 2. noun. someone or something
  regarded as characteristic or serving to
  exemplify || a person who is appointed to
  act and speak for another person or for a
  country, company, group etc. || a traveling
  salesman || in the U.S.A., a member of the
  elected lower house of Congress (House of
  Representatives) or of a state legislature.

==========================================
capital, adjective hence noun, whence
also capitalism, capitalist, capitalize,
capitation, capitulate, capitulation.
==========================================

The adjective ~capital is adopted from OF-F
~capital: L ~capitalis, of the head, concerning
loss of head, from ~caput, the head, oblique
stem ~capit- (for anterior etymology, CHIEF);
the noun ~capital is adopted from EF-F.
~Capitation derives from LL ~capitation-,
oblique stem of ~capitatio, a poll tax, from
~capit-; '~to~capitulate', from ML ~capitulatus,
past participle of ~capitulare, to number,
hence to distinguish, by heads or chapters,
with derivative ~capitulatio, oblique stem
~capitulation-, whence, via EF-F, the E
~capitulation, with E-formed adjective
~capitulatory. The compound LL ~recapitulare,
to number again, has past participle
~recapitulatus, whence '~to~recapitulate~',
and subsidiary ~recapitulatio, oblique stem
~-ation-, whence, perhaps via MF-F, the
E ~recapitulation.


  OF  - Old French
  F   - French
  L   - Latin
  EF  - Early Modern French (1500-1700)
  LL  - Late Latin (c A.D. 180-600)
  ML  - Medieval Latin


aristocracy: noun. government by a small,
privileged, hereditary class, drawn from the
leading families in the state (cf. DEMOCRACY)
|| a state so governed || the members of such
a governing class, in particular those who
bear titles of nobility (even when they no
longer control government) || (in Plato and
Aristotle) government by those whose character
best fits them for the task || the best or most
prominent of any class [aristos~best+kratia~rule].

oligarchy: n. a form of government in which power
is in the hands of a few || a state or country
ruled in this way || the governing members of
an oligarchy.

oligopoly: n. control of a market by a few
producers, no one producer being dominant.

monopolize: to make a monopoly of || to assume
exclusive control or use of

monopoly: n. exclusive control of the supply of
a product or service in a particular market ||
an exclusive privilege to engage in a particular
business or provide a particular service, granted
by a ruler, state etc. || a commodity under
exclusive control || a company having
exclusive control.

monotheism: n. belief in only one God.

communism: n. the ownership of property, or
means of production, distribution and supply,
by the whole of a classless society with wealth
shared on the principle of 'to each according
to his need', each yielding fully 'according
to his ability' || the body of political and
economic doctrines which sets forth the
establishing of this as a revolutionary aim
through the dictatorship of the proletariat.
Communism: a social and political movement
which is based on Marx's interpretation of
history and which seeks to achieve communism
by revolutionary means. [~communis common]
-- The history of Communinism goes back to
Karl Marx's 'Communist Manifesto' published
(1848) in England, in which he put forward
historical materialism. Lenin developed the
the Communist party after the Russian
Revolution (1917), when the U.S.S.R. was
established. Stalin opposed Trotsky's
insistence on universal revolution and
developed a strong dictatorship, which
after his death was denounced by Khrushchev
as 'the cult of personality'. Since Stalin,
there has been a return in Russia to Marxist-
Leninism. There are profound differences in
the development of Communinism in Russia,
China, Poland, Yugoslavia and other countries.
(Websters Dictionary version circa 1989)

Marxism: n. the political, economic and
social system advocated by Marx and Engels
and their followers. Its philosophical bases
are dialectical materialism and historical
materialism. It sees capitalist society in
terms of the exploitation of the proletariat
by the bourgeoise. It holds that that
communism, the political aspect of the
system, will be achieved when the class
struggle results in the overthrow of
capitalism by the dictatorship of the
proletariat and when a classless society
has emerged from the withering away of
the state.

proletariat: the lowest class in a modern
society, esp. (in Marxist theory) industrial
wage earners possessing neither property nor
capital and living by the sale of their labor
|| the lowest class in ancient Rome.

bourgeoise: 1. adj. belonging to or typical
of the middle classes || having self-centered,
materialistic and conformist ideas 2. noun.
someone having such limited ideas || a member
of the middle classes.

bourgeoisification: n. becoming, or making
into, a middle-class person, or instilling
or applying middle-class ideas.

revolution: n. the act of revolving || an
unconstitutional overthrow of an established
government || a fundamental social change ||
any fundamental complete change.

radical: 1. adj. relating to or affecting
fundamentals, ~a ~radical ~change. || existing
in the essential character of a person or thing
|| arising from the rhizome, or rootlike stem
|| of or pertaining to a linguistic root ||
(esp. politics) seeking to make drastic reforms
in society as it is. 2. a free radical || a
person of radical views or symphathies.

radical right: (U.S.) extreme conservative
movement in politics, e.g. fascism. (radical
rightism, radical rightist).

fascism: any political or social ideology
of the extreme right which relies on a
combination of pseudo-religious attitudes
and the brutal use of force for getting
and keeping power.

ideologism: extreme loyalty to an ideology.

ideology: n. a body of ideas used in support
of an economic, political, or social theory
|| the way of thinking about class, culture
or individual || (philos.) the science of ideas,
esp. those springing from sensory stimulation.

state: 1. n. a form or model of being, a
condition || such a condition with respect
to the mind or emotions, or to growth or
development || a self-governing political
community occupying its own territory ||
a partly autonomous member of a political
federation || the condition of aggregation
or arrangement of matter || the condition
of a physical system separate from all other
conditions of that system  and specified by
definite quantities of energy, entropy,
momentum etc. || State: the political
organism as an abstract concept.

public: 1. of or pertaining to the community
as a whole, ~the ~public ~good || for the
use of the community at large and maintained
at the community's expense || that is or can
be known by all members of the community ||
acting for the people || of or relating to
the service of the community, often receiving
publicity. 2. n. (usually with 'the') the
members of a community in general || a group
or section of a community characterized by
some common interest.

public service: service of the state ||
that which serves a need of the public.

private view: a showing of an exhibition to
specially invited people, held before the
general public is invited.

privatism: 1. policy of not becoming
involved in matters not personally
essential. 2. the desire for privacy.

private: 1. adj. belonging to a particular
person or group and not shared with others
in any way, ~private ~property || not holding
public office, ~private ~citizen || having
nothing to do with one's official or public
character || secret, hidden from others ||
not available to or not supported by the
general public... [fr. L. ~privatus, not
holding public office]
private:

estate: 	class 61.2
		house and grounds 191.7
		people 417.2
		property 810.4
		state 7.1
			
n. a landed property || the whole of a
person's property, including real estate
and personal estate || a development
(tract of land developed as a unit)
|| a class in society sharing in the
government of a country.

The Establishment: the people established
in positions of authority, esp. the ruling
class, bound together by intermarriage or
interest and popularly regarded as having
excessive privileges and power.


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