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<nettime> Dowse: local area networks in the age of IoT (also meant to
Jaromil on Wed, 4 Jun 2014 18:15:08 +0200 (CEST)

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<nettime> Dowse: local area networks in the age of IoT (also meant to

dear Nettimers,

here below a software announcement and a whitepaper that I'm posting
here hoping to stimulate some reflection and reasoning about the IoT
scenario and user awareness concerns. The Dowse project, this is the
name of it, has now reached to form of a working proof of concept
(version 0.5) and its implications are not only technical, but also
political and legal, putting in relationship the broad discourse about
the Internet of Things and the transformations of local area networking.

With Dowse we also intend to start a conceptual operation to
"demilitarize networking language", well conscious that of the two
possible linguistic contexts that can be attributed to a black box we
choose the magic, rather than the military.

We are partnering with Waag Society and seeking more partners and
opportunities to make this project sustainable. Meanwhile, we have
applied to CHEST for seed funding and I'd highly appreciate your support
in rating this project and endorse it:

Dowse aims to be a IoT end user appliance, but also a portable, modular
and free and open source platform we can all use for further
developments. Please do not hesitate to contact me on this list or in
private with ideas and propositions.

Thanks for your attention and support, best wishes

Dowse webpage: http://dyne.org/software/dowse

Dowse source on GitHub: https://github.com/dyne/dowse

Dowse stable downloads: https://files.dyne.org/dowse

Dowse whitepaper PDF: https://files.dyne.org/dowse/dowse_whitepaper.pdf


		   Dyne.org Foundation / Waag Society

Table of Contents

1 Introduction to Dowse
.. 1.1 Scenario: the Internet of Things
.. 1.2 Problem: opaque gateways
.. 1.3 Opportunity: the hub
.. 1.4 Concept: de-militarization
.. 1.5 Idea: responsible networking
.. 1.6 Solution: context awareness
2 Features
.. 2.1 User cases
.. 2.2 Architecture
.. 2.3 Technical design
.. 2.4 Overview of functions
.. 2.5 Proof of concept
3 Motivation
4 Open positions
.. 4.1 Fundraiser
.. 4.2 Campaigner
.. 4.3 Organizer
.. 4.4 Developers
.. 4.5 Get involved
5 Acknowledgments
.. 5.1 About Waag Society
..... 5.1.1 Specific Expertise
.. 5.2 About Dyne.org Foundation
.. 5.3 License of this document

1 Introduction to Dowse

1.1 Scenario: the Internet of Things

  Running a network in the age of the Internet of Things means hosting
  the connectivity of multiple devices owned by a diversity of
  subjects. Often such devices have full access to private, common and
  public information about humans operating them. Furthermore, devices
  can talk to each other without humans being consulted, and such
  interactions are not even manifest. This situation raises issues that
  are not just technical, but socio-political, about the way
  *connections happen without human consent*, within local networks and
  towards the outside, to and from the Internet.

  The risks of /unconscious/ abuse and exploitation of information
  asymmetry are growing tremendously. As *things initiate on the behalf
  of users*, we are making a major leap towards a world that provides us
  with contexts that we may not want at all. Getting insight on such
  situations is crucial for societies at large.

1.2 Problem: opaque gateways

  As the concentration of network-connected devices and applications
  increases, so does the volume and complexity of network
  activity. While these network actors communicate on ever greater
  scales, the central device which interconnects them has remained
  basically the same. The so-called gateway or router is usually
  provided and programmed by an ISP, and meant to be largely ignored by
  the âuser.â

  The gateway is opaque in terminology, and an engineering of
  disempowerment in practice. By making the gateway an esoteric device,
  a closed device, a device which hides under the couch, opportunities
  to create, distribute, and use software which properly govern the
  small-scale network are lost.

1.3 Opportunity: the hub

  The centrality of the gateway device in the home/office puts it in a
  position of unique power and future opportunity. It is the locus of
  discovery, communication, and regulation between connected devices. It
  forms the fundamental structural matrix for the Internet of Things at
  the most basic scale.

  We see an opportunity to create a hub which is a part of the
  experience of the networked person, the networked household, the owner
  of devices, the Internet participant. While the term âhubâ belonged to
  the era of 10Base-T, it seems appropriate to revive the term now, as
  we seek a new set of generic non-authoritarian terminology to talk
  about the device which joins the other devices in our local network.

1.4 Concept: de-militarization

  Dowse is not only a functional tool, but a symbolic operation
  proposing a different linguistic approach to networking. In
  conceptualizing and documenting Dowse, all references to military
  traits are removed: there is no use of "defense", "shield", "guardian"
  or "firewall" words.

  Privacy awareness (rather than protection) is envisioned and presented
  to its users not as a violent process, but as a responsible, natural
  act â one in search of harmony among those things connecting the
  inside and outside of a personâs private, common, and public aspects
  of life.

1.5 Idea: responsible networking

  In the IoT paradigm, having a clear overview of what goes in and out
  of the network becomes of crucial importance for home users and
  professionals. The ultimate question of responsibility for whatever
  happens within a network cannot be easily answered, considering the
  way /things can autonomously decide to initiate communications/.

  Dowse is a smart digital network appliance for home based local area
  networks (LAN), but also small and medium business offices, that makes
  it possible to *connect objects and people in a friendly, conscious
  and responsible manner*.

  Dowse aims to be a critical engineering project, abiding to the
  principles stated in the Critical Engineers Manifesto.[1]

1.6 Solution: context awareness

  By replacing the outdated proprietary ISP âgatewayâ with an open and
  user-visible device, Dowse creates a new platform that leverages its
  topologically unique access and influence in the domain of the
  local-area network. It introduces a visible, malleable, knowable
  communications hub to the language of the small network.

  Dowse seizes on the power of the technologically/topologically
  necessary gateway/hub role to create development opportunities which
  cannot exist on other platforms.  Dowse becomes the locus of a
  specific new class of end-user-visible applications which are able to
  perceive and affect all devices in the local sphere, whether they are
  open or closed.

  Moving above the platform of Dowse, it is in touching upon the
  Internet of Things that a glimmer appears of what may be Dowseâs
  killer app(s). These are the applications of Dowse in which human
  opportunities appear to interactively define the Internet of Things at
  a high level. The entrance or departure of a device from the local IoT
  ecosystem is accompanied by audiovisual interactive aspects. Such
  interactions extend to the new presence or absence of a communications
  channel, for example between an electrical meter and a
  corporation. The software explorations that can appear in this domain,
  enabled by the Dowse platform, can bring individual awareness,
  preference, and empowered influence to the network/IoT as its own

2 Features

2.1 User cases

  *Imagine running a network whose password is known to several people*:
   while one would desire lax security in order to enable people to
   connect, one could then never be sure about unknown devices on the
   network.  Dowse actively monitors network events to alert the users
   of significant changes: whenever a device joins the network, an
   audible signal is produced with a welcome message and/or light

  Dowse grants default network access to guests while the presence of
  newcomers and unusual connection patterns is signaled. *Users can then
  mark guest devices as known* (white-listing) to grant wider or fine
  grained access to them, as well grant known users the right to welcome
  more guests. Devices can also be assigned a name which will make them
  reachable on the LAN via human readable URLs, as well customized
  audible signals like a warm "/welcome back/" for dear guests.

  In a highly connected home environment, Dowse will provide an easy to
  use interface on which proper user-centric design has been done (LEAN
  UX approach). Inhabitants will be able control exactly which flows of
  data go in and out of their private LAN space, being enabled to make
  decisions about new devices when they appear: from a new electricity
  meter to a mobile phone or computer.

  From a legal perspective, *Dowse clearly separates the leased network
  device by the network carrier (ISP) from user owned LAN devices*,
  making them opaque to each other.

  Dowse helps *removing undesired advertisements and browser malware* to
  make Internet surfing less distracting and less dangerous. Dowse
  filters all cleartext web traffic to avoid advertisements, and also
  applies IP block-lists to avoid known malware distributors and botnet
  connections. It helps to avoid damages and complaints in case a
  tainted device brought in by a guest connects from inside the network.

  Dowse enhances the privacy of people surfing the Internet in cases
  where *confidentiality and integrity of research is important*. For
  example, in the case of journalists and activists, the profiling of
  DNS resolution queries can be a delicate point of vulnerability to all
  kinds of covert operations: not just passive tapping, but also active
  deception. Dowse alleviates the risk in such situation by relying on
  the connection to a few trusted and authenticated DNS services,
  encrypting all traffic (UDP port 53) and avoiding the most widespread
  practices of covert user profiling. In case of Internet censorship,
  Dowse also facilitates access to parallel networks that let users
  circumvent limitations imposed by a connectivity carrier. Access to
  parallel networks like Tor, I2P, GNUnet or Netsukuku is granted
  without requiring users to install any software.

  Finally, Dowse can enable *responsible parents* to address the freedom
  of their kids to browse the Internet, by preventing aggressions by
  malware, phishing and other kind of intrusions into their experience.

2.2 Architecture

  Dowse is a *transparent proxy* facilitating the awareness of ingoing
  and outgoing connections, from, to, and within a local area network.

  Dowse provides a *central point of soft control for all local
  traffic*: from ARP traffic (layer 2) to TCP/IP (layers 3 and 4) as
  well as application space, by chaining a firewall setup to a
  trasparent proxy setup. A core feature for Dowse is that of *hiding
  all the complexity* of such a setup.

  Dowse commnicates with users in various ways: via a web interface, but
  also pushing messages via audio (synthesized speech), Bonjour and
  simple apps interfacing with personal mobile devices.

  Dowse can implement this with a complex of open-source, well
  established technical tools, simplifying their integrated setup:
  specific directives read by daemon applications are generated from a
  central configuration point. The configuration options visible to
  users are reduced to the minimum, while adopting *automatic guessing
  mechanisms in most cases*. Both the implementation and the user
  interface for Dowse are extremely minimal.

  Dowse is also a *highly extensible platform*: interoperability between
  modules is available using Socks4/5, UNIX pipes, local TCP/IP sockets
  and port redirection, conforming to specific daemon
  implementations. At the core of Dowse is a very portable shell script
  codebase implementing a modular plugin architecture that isolates
  processes and supports any executable written in any language: Shell,
  C, Perl, Python etc.

  At last, *Dowse also acts as a gateway to the future proliferation of
  parallel networks*, mostly based on particular content niches or on
  different levels of privacy granted, like Tor and GNUnet. Using Dowse,
  is possible to access such opaque networks without installing anything
  on any device, just stepping into an home or office.

2.3 Technical design

  At least from its first appearance on the market, and in people's
  home/office setups, the *Dowse box should be visible device* to
  virally spread its image which indicates that the local network in a
  particular environment is taken care of responsibly. This will involve
  an industrial design project of the exterior of the object at a later

  *In its software form, Dowse will be a free and open source
   application bundle: OS independent and hardware independent*. A
   reference implementation will be distributed as a ISO, ready to be
   flashed on SD cards and run on RaspberryPI and other common devices
   running Debian and OpenWRT.

  In general, and considering especially the success of modular design
  products like RaspberryPi or Arduino, modularity should be a key
  feature for the final hardware box design, adopting an *add-on
  achitecture that allows the community to make modules and distribute
  them autonomously*.

  The Dowse box should operate on low power (USB 5v, 2.5W) and two
  ethernet network connectors (RJ45). It is *made to sit between the
  broadband network router and the rest of the internal network*,
  therefore it can be simply connected to the USB and Ethernet ports of
  the router box using short cables for a complete installation.

  For a first prototype, the second network interface can be realized
  using an additional USB adapter which can also be an Ethernet (RJ45)
  or WiFi adaptor, eventually turning the Dowse into a wireless access
  point for small areas.

  For a dual-ethernet prototype platform, the /Olimex A10/ so far
  matches best our requirements (company in Bulgaria, well distributed
  in Benelux) running both a stable Debian GNU/Linux based distribution
  or OpenWRT. The bare cost for such hardware, all included, amounts to
  approx 50â.

2.4 Overview of functions

  Dowse takes control of a LAN by becoming its DHCP server and thereby
  assigning itself as main gateway and DNS server for all clients. It
  keeps tracks of assigned leases by MAC Address. DNSMasq is the DHCP
  and DNS daemon.

  All network traffic is passed through NAT rules for masquerading. All
  HTTP traffic (TCP port 80) is filtered through a transparent proxy,
  using an application layer chain of Squid2 and Privoxy.

  All DNS traffic (UDP port 53) is filtered through DNSCrypt-proxy and
  encrypted using AES/SHA256 before being sent to DNSCrypt.eu or other
  configurable servers supporting this protocol.

  In the future, traffic of all kinds may be transparently proxied for
  monitoring, filtering, and transformation by other applications loaded
  on the Dowse device.

  All daemons are running as a unique non-privileged UID. The future
  plan is to separate them using a different UID for each daemon.

  When running on a single physical network interface Dowse will require
  users to deactivate manually the DHCP daemon on the ADSL router. But
  the hardware prototype will be based on devices with at least two RJ45
  ethernet and/or a WiFi AP in order to enforce physical segmentation
  and isolate the broadband router into a DMZ. So far the best
  possibility to realize this in a modular fashion is to add USB modules
  that provide an extra ethernet RJ45 (~5â) and a WiFi interface (~10â).

2.5 Proof of concept

  Dowse already comprises of a proof of concept implementation as free
  software visible on [[http://www.dyne.org/software/dowse]].

  This proof of concept is OS and hardware independent. It currently
  supports only one physical network interface, and is being tested on
  Debian. Also see [[http://freecode.com/projects/dowse]] and

  Dowse 0.4 can only be operated from a terminal, and it has a
  rudimentary implementation for modules, including working instances of
  DNSCrypt-proxy and Tor as gateway to the .Onion network.

3 Motivation

  The goals for Dowse are in first place ethical: our priorities go far
  beyond the sustainability of the project itself, ultimately aiming at
  the production, enhancement and distribution of responsible and
  free/libre software.

  In the long term there is a business model that we envision, and it
  should make this initiative well sustainable. It is the business
  scheme adopted by most succesful *free software* and *open hardware*
  bundles that bring to market a product for which there is high demand
  by virtue of viral adoption and de-facto simple standards.

  In order to achieve such a success, the ambition we put forward is
  that of following a /LEAN/ approach to the design of this project, and
  therefore we invite all recipients of this document to be involved in

  a user-centered design process. In order to have results, we will
  *defer long-term research tasks in favor of rapid achievements* that
  will enable developers and designers to have a close-knit feedback
  loop with use cases.

  In the medium-term we will seek alliances with existing hardware
  producers and utility distributors to adopt Dowse as a well
  documented, minimal and solid platform for generic development. We
  envision a win-win situation for the adoption of Dowse by specific
  utility distributors, on national and regional scales, that will
  benefit from a *shared, community driven, decentralized and peer
  reviewed R&D process*, insuring the long term sustainability of
  devices embedded in domotic installations and running crucial network

  We do hope for the network effect and high demand for this product to
  be driven by recent events which have woken up the world to the
  importance of privacy and integrity, and also by the fact that
  existing devices of this kind (routers, switches, wifi access points)
  offer a sub-optimal and hardly usable set of functions for *awareness
  in the age of the Internet of Things*, which currently in the best
  case are designed to be operated by specialized engineers and security

  In the longer term, high quality, low production, adaptability and
  resilience are key to the business model of Dowse, which configures
  itself as a design intensive project with low hardware requirements.

4 Open positions

  This sketch of available positions is negotiable with initial partners
  as it can benefit from their valuable experience.

4.1 Fundraiser

  Public seed funds play a crucial role in the bootstrap of the Dowse
  project. We need a professional figure to engage this task, gather
  information starting from this document and the input produced by the
  community and developers, bring all into the format of various public
  funding applications.

4.2 Campaigner

  We need to involve into Dowse someone who has good experience in
  building media campaigns well-grounded in the ethical principles of
  free/libre software and who has mastered digital design and web
  publishing. Audio/Video making skills are also crucial: we'll need to
  rapidly run a low-budget production with interviews to be consolidated
  into one or two trailer videos and a succint website.

  Requisites: communication skills, good knowledge of languages (English
  and Spanish primarily; Italian, French and German a plus), multimedia
  editing abilities and website design.

  This is a key position. The campaigner(s) won't play a publicly
  visible role, rather than work towards the visibility of Dowse as a
  project. It can be a single full-time position or two part-time

  The campaigner should foster discussion among opinion makers at large,
  with emphasis for adoption of /dowsing/ devices into the European
  market, which should be sold devices (not leased) in complete control
  of their proprietors.

  In the midst of the Dowse development plan there is also the intention
  to run a "crowdfunding" pre-order campaign that will deliver a first
  batch of Dowse boxes. Such a campaign will be crucial to provide a
  part of the funding necessary for Dowse, as well will provide a
  success indicator. The production of Dowse can be scaled up to 1000
  devices in this phase (approx â100 each) without much effort and keen
  supporters can decide to become stakeholders by paying a "share"
  entitling them to more benefits and recognition.

4.3 Organizer

  The organizer will be active on all aspects of production for the
  realisation of events and hackatons. There are a few months allocated
  since this position does not need to be involved all the time.

4.4 Developers

  We need developers with solid background in GNU/Linux system
  administration, shell scripting, and GNU coding and documentation
  quality standards.

  There are 2 basic open positions for developers: 1 senior part-time,
  and 1 junior full-time (or 2 junior part-time).

  Starting from the current software configuration, developers should
  bring the codebase to a stable stage and package it in binary form to
  distribute it as a ready-to-run image for RPi devices.

  Developers will have to follow a LEAN UX process of analysis in the
  beta-testing phase, writing an A.I. that can adapt network
  configurations for different situations.

  Another main task will be that of developing and documenting a modular
  and minimal software architecture.

  The final task will be that of fine tuning Dowse to work as an
  hardware product.

4.5 Get involved

  We welcome organizations and individuals to get involved in Dowse
  providing insights, use cases, endorsements and help with this

  Please communicate interest, intentions, funding proposals and
  suggestions to *dowse {AT} dyne.org*.

  Website: [[http://dyne.org/software/dowse]]

  Code repository: [[https://github.com/dyne/dowse]]

5 Acknowledgments

  In 2014 Jaromil has conceived the Dowse plan, proof of concept and the
  making of this whitepaper. Earliest contributors to the whitepaper
  drafting process are Hellekin O. Wolf, Anatole Shaw, Juergen Neumann,
  Federico Bonelli, Julian Oliver, Tom Demeyer, Mieke van Heesewijk and
  Floris Kleemans.

5.1 About Waag Society

  Waag Society is an interdisciplinary non-profit media lab researching,
  developing and experimenting with new technology, art and culture. The
  foundationâs vision is that technology determines societyâs present
  and future and people have to be able to understand it, use it and
  influence its course. Waag Societyâs mission is to work in
  interdisciplinary teams to provide meaning and give direction to the
  role of technology in society. In co-operation with end-users it
  develops technology that enables people to express, connect, reflect
  and share.  It hosts events and plays an active role in debates about
  technology and related issues like trust, privacy and IP.

  Waag Society is part of the Dutch national infrastructure for the arts
  and culture. It was founded in 1994 and has its roots in the Digital
  City (1994). The Digital City was the first online community, which
  aimed to question The Internet â in those days limited to science and
  defense â and make it available for everybody. Nowadays the Internet
  is all around and new technologies are to be explored and made usable,
  such as RFID, GPS, Fablabs, Cradle to Cradle and new forms of gaming,
  participation and distributed cooperation.

5.1.1 Specific Expertise

  Waag Society has longtime experience in interdisciplinary community
  building, project management in innovative and avant-garde projects
  and hosts technical infrastructures of several cultural institutions
  in Amsterdam.

  Waag Societyâs Creative Learning Labâs goal within the domain of
  education is innovation.  The Creative Learning Lab has a wide
  experience in developing creative technology for innovation in
  education. The Lab has a broad network in educational institutions in
  the Netherlands at different levels.

  Waag Society takes part in several national and international
  programmes on Open Data. It is co-initiator of Apps for Amsterdam and
  Apps for Holland. These bring together future-minded civil servants
  and a community of hackers and civic innovators. Furthermore, it
  builds an Open Data service innovation infrastructure in the national
  programme Virtual Creative Collaboration Platform. Apart from this, it
  is partner in the Open Data working strand of Open Cities.

  Waag Society is part of a think tank of the Municipality of Amsterdam
  addressing Open Data & Sustainability. The think tank focuses on the
  topic from several perspectives: public administration, public
  engagement and interactivity, legal and regulatory issues, service
  development on shared open data platforms and competitiveness.

  Waag Society founding partner in the Dutch chapter of Creative
  Commons. Creative Commons is an international organization dedicated
  to propose alternative, open Intellectual Propperty schemes that
  foster the needs of professional makers, amateurs and society alike.
  Waag Society is part of MITâs global Fablab (Fabrication Lab) network
  of standardized open hardware setups with i.e. laser cutterâs and 3D
  printers. People from all over the world use Fablabs to create and
  develop their own ideas and solutions. Based on Fablab philosophy Waag
  Society and partners organize the annual (un)limited Design Contest,
  proclaiming that the design of products is no longer restricted to
  professional designers. Contestants are stimulated to practice Open
  Design, making mash-ups of existing designs and in return the
  blueprints are to be given back to the community. In 2010 the kick-off
  of the contest is held at the DMY Festival in Berlin.

  Waag Society is co-founder of PICNIC Amsterdam - an interdisciplinary
  annual network festival bringing together and disseminating the ideas
  and knowledge of the world's best creators and innovators.

5.2 About Dyne.org Foundation

  Dyne.org is a digital born organization committed to research and
  development of free and open source software and services. Dyne.org
  acts in support of artists, creatives and engaged citizens in the
  digital age with tools, practices and narratives for community
  empowerment. Since its birth in 2000 several radio makers,
  humanitarian organisations, artists, medics, activists and educators
  employed and redistributed our software worldwide and free of charge.

  Dyne.org is constituted by an international network of experts
  syndicating and contributing to diverse technological developments for
  their quality and role within societies. Among its peers Dyne.org
  shares mutual support and resources for peace and equal rights,
  operating outside the logic of profit and competition. The mission of
  Dyne.org is to supports cooperation within social contexts to leverage
  on-line and on-site community values, to empower people with the
  hacker attitude to re/think, re/mix and re/design to circumvent
  limitations and find a ways out from economies based on scarcity and

  At the origin of Dyne.org are several BBS and in particular the
  Freaknet, which is now an on-line and on-site medialab and computer
  museum based in the Mediterranean island of Sicily, surviving since
  1994 the hostile environment of South Italian criminal administration
  and cultural repression. Dyne.org members regularly gather in the
  Italian Hackmeeting which is, since 1998, the annual gathering of many
  computer and reality hackers, an auto-organized TAZ inspired by people
  and projects at CCC, 2600, GNU and EFF.

  In 2001 Dyne.org started developing the dyne:bolic GNU/Linux
  distribution, 100% free multimedia operating system that works well on
  recycled computers, endorsed and promoted by the Free Software
  Foundation. Further on Dyne.org has been developing and documenting a
  variety of empowering tools made by and for digital natives around the
  world, running workshops and putting in contact artists and
  practitioners, providing a public and common space for on-line
  interactions. Among the others, Dyne.org creations have been
  redistributed by:

   Free Software Foundation                 (USA) 
   Montevideo / Time Based Arts             (NL)  
   Ircam, Centre Pompidou                   (FR)  
   Providence Univ. Taichung                (TW)  
   Tecnhische Univ. Ilmenau                 (DE)  
   Netherlands Unix User Group              (NL)  
   Instituto de ComputaÃÃo Uni de Campinas  (BR)  
   Heraklion University Crete               (GR)  
   Ibiblio public library                         

  In 2013 Dyne.org became an European research organization, partner of
  the D-CENT project (FP7/CAPS).

5.3 License of this document

  The Dowse Whitepaper is Copyleft (C) 2014 by Denis Roio
  <jaromil {AT} dyne.org>

  The Dowse Logo is Copyleft (C) 2014 by Hellekin O. Wolf
  <hellekin {AT} dyne.org>

  The Dowsing for Networks photograph is Copyleft (C) 2014 by Anatole

  These works are licensed under the Creative Commons
  Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Netherlands License. To view
  a copy of this license (english translation), visit
  [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/] or send a letter
  to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View,
  California, 94041, USA.

  Deze werken zijn gelicenseerd onder een Creative Commons
  Naamsvermelding-NietCommercieel-GelijkDelen 3.0 Nederland. Bezoek
  [http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/nl/] om een kopie te
  zien van de licentie of stuur een brief naar Creative Commons, 444
  Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, California, 94041, USA.


[1] Berlin, October 2011, see: [http://criticalengineering.org]

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