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<nettime> Unbombing the World Project
Tjebbe van Tijen on Mon, 22 Feb 1999 19:16:46 +0100 (CET)


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<nettime> Unbombing the World Project


The idea is to make an installation that, starting in 2001, can travel
worldwide and can be exhibited both in towns that have been bombed in the
last century and in towns of countries that have bombed others but did not
come under attack themselves (United States). 

The collection of the content for this installation will be done by a
group of researchers which will develop a network of local researchers all
over the world. A system will be devised which allows for participation in
the research from people living in or connected to each of the towns
bombed (a list can be found at the end of this document). 

The use of the Internet will be essential for this part. Through a system
of structured information gathering local researchers can share their
knowledge with others on a global level. 

The first stage of the project will be to bring the database of bombed
cities on line, with the possibility for people to comment and add. 

People ineterested to participate can contact me through my email address.
Please putting the following line in the subject header <unbombing
consultant>. 

-----------------------------
UNBOMBING THE WORLD 1911-2001
-----------------------------

90 years aerial bombing of the human habitat

a proposal for an installation on the history and future of planned
destruction and reconstruction

Tjebbe van Tijen - Imaginary Museum Projects

-over a million of death
-more than a thousand square kilometres of vanished townscapes

<illustrated webversion on http://people.a2000.nl/ttijen/ubw/ubw01a.html >

The planned destruction of human beings and their habitat by aerial
bombing, including the inevitable attacks by 'mistake'. Showing all aerial
bombings in an impartial and indiscriminate way, making them comparable,
thus putting the debate beyond the justifications of contemporary
'real-politik'. Clarifying the underlying structures of the
military-industrial complex and the political bureaucracy that formed, and
still form, the basis for this kind of mass destruction. De-constructing
the process: mapping, targeting, choosing, planning, testing, threatening,
bombing, mediating, evaluating, commemorating. Make it understood that
there is a close link between the violence of weapons of the military and
the violence of euphemistic language of the politicians. 

Give voice to those in the past who dared to question or criticise the
aerial bombings of 'their enemies' and had to face the consequences of
such 'anti-patriotic' behaviour. Re-evaluating the official and unofficial
protests of the bombed ones, with their accusations of 'crimes against
humanity', raising the ethical question of means and ends, why not all
atrocities are considered 'war crimes'. Putting the emphasis not so much
on the spectacular sight of destruction with its heroism and even
aesthetic attraction, as can be found in many eyewitness accounts of major
blasts and fires by people that were lucky enough to escape and tell their
story, but on the much more invisible phenomena of the 'bureaucratisation
of genocide'; the daily routine of mapping and targeting the supposed
enemy. A practice that has not been stopped at the end of the Second World
War, Cold War, or Vietnam War, but has continued to exist till this very
moment. 

Condensing these complex issues by juxtaposing fragments of historical
documents relating to the different actors in this theatre of war, both
perpetrators and victims: politicians, civil servants, scientists,
industrialists, military personnel, civilians. Choosing a significant
number and a representative variety of bombed cities from the complete
list of approximate 400 towns in the world that have been bombed in the
last 90 years. Dramatising the historical documents that belong to the
chosen examples, by using interactive audio-visual media. With each chosen
dramatised example, showing comparable examples (just in text form,
diagrams or maps) from the complete list, to make the magnitude of
destruction always understood. 

Letting the voices of the victims of bombing be heard by quoting from the
vast arsenal of personal accounts that have been published the last nine
decades in different countries that have suffered bombing attacks. Making
a choice of such writings and translating them in the languages needed in
the country or countries where the installation will be shown. Setting up
an international network of concerned people: archivists, artists, people
who have witnessed a bombing, local journalists, peace activists,
translators, photographers, etc., who will share their knowledge by adding
it to a public accessible database which will be made available over the
Internet. 

Placing the destruction by aerial bombing in a wider historical context by
finding ways to show how, through the whole of history, towns and their
inhabitants have been made a target, put on a list to be destroyed or
annihilated, from the legend like biblical story of the destruction by
divine fire of Sodom and Gomorra, to the bombing raid of the combined
American and British air forces with the code name 'Operation Gomorra' on
Hamburg in 1943, where 40.000 civilians were killed in a human made fire
storm. Studying the language used by those attacking and those being
attacked, showing the links with events way back in history, with words
like 'Huns' and names like Genghis Kahn, surfacing again. Showing how
deeply rooted the collective memories of these violent periods in human
history are. Relating this to man made apocalyps of the middle of the
twentieth century: Berlin, Dresden, Tokyo, Hiroshima, Nagasaki. Posing,
also, the question about a possible link between urban growth and urban
disaster, between destruction and reconstruction, noting the vitality of
all those cities that, in one way or another, did rise from their ashes,
maybe even more vital as before. 

Comparing the different reconstruction processes of bombed cities: those
that have referred back to the past by building replicas of what have been
destroyed, and those that were using the opportunity to build a new town,
following a whole new concept, almost welcoming the 'tabula rasa' created
by war, the unique opportunity, a town as an empty piece of paper on a
drawing board. Contrasting the magnitude of destruction by bombing in war
with that of destruction by regular urban renewal Finding ways to show
clearly what has disappeared forever, what have been reconstructed and
what have been newly added. Ask people to imagine what would have happened
if their town would not have been bombed. 

Showing all this in an installation, an art work, an educational facility
if you want,that has three different layers, using three main symbols: 

Stones
------

Bureaucratic procedures for choosing targets can lead to the actual
destruction of human habitat. High technology is used to bomb people back
into the stone age. Images of this destruction, frozen in engraved
tombstones, can be personally captured. Rubbings made on paper with
charcoal can be taken home. Before proceeding to the other parts of the
installation you can wash your hands in 'innocence'. 

A graveyard of tombstones with aerial photographs of bombed cities
engraved. The stones can be contemplated and visitors can make charcoal
rubbings of stones to take home, either single stones of particular
cities, or combining different cities in one rubbing. When they are
finished with this they can wash their dirty hands and proceed to the rest
of the installation. 


Desks
-----

There is an inescapable relation between the targeting and destruction of
the human habitat and the reconstruction afterwards. However devastating
and cruel the attack, none of the towns bombed by modern technology have
been wiped of the face of the earth definitely. The office-desk and the
drawing-table are the two symbols that stand at the beginning and end of
this process of destruction and recreation. 

Sitting at an office desk with drawers full of files with the names of
target cities and target areas. Going through these files, taking out one,
opening it and study the details. Opening the other drawer of the desk and
going through the arsenal of possible weapons. Choosing the right weapon
that belongs to how the chosen target fits in space and time. Bombing the
target and turn around on your office chair, looking to what was there
before and what after. Having the opportunity to turn away from the desk,
asking yourself: "what have I done?" 

Sitting at the drawing table of the urban planner, making an inventory of
the war damage, thinking up new plans, deciding what to keep, what to
knock down after all. Turning your chair, looking at what was before, at
what came after, maybe turning around and ask yourself: "what have I
done?". 

By pointing a hand size symbolic model of an aeroplane up and down, the
visitor can listen to narrated fragments from those who were bombing and
those who have been bombed. 

In a similar way, at the drawing table, the visitor can listen to stories
of both the planners and the ones that have been planned, by moving a
special drawing pencil up and down over the table. 


Joysticks
---------

The difference between playing war with an arcade or home game and real
war has diminished greatly by the miniaturisation and computerisation of
both military and consumer electronics. Desktop war as entertainment, or
for real, has become a reality. Human victims seem to have no importance
neither in simulation games nor in real life. 

Around the installation with the stones and the desks are several flight
simulators and wargames placed for the visitors to use. These are both
recreational and military games. Before being able to play a game, to
exercise war, the visitor will have to look at a short interview on the
screens of the computers and the military and arcade game, with both
makers and players of these simulations and games. Questions will be
asked: "why is it that victims are so invisible", "can it be that these
games will have a kind of kartharsis function?", "would you really push
the button, do the attack when ordered?". 

--------------------
This is the second draft of the unbombing project as formulated by Tjebbe
van Tijen/Imaginary Museum Projects. The aim is to find other people,
other orgaisations, institutions that are interested, willing to
collaborate on this project. There is a lot that still needs detailing,
there are many things that can be adapted or changed, in one way or
another, though the basic structure has now been laid down and should
remain. A first list of possible cities and rural areas that might be part
of this installation is included in this document. There is a seperate
introduction for that section. 


Amsterdam February 1999

All contacts via: Imaginary Museum Projects Nieuwe Amstelstraat 70, 1011
PM, Amsterdam, Netherlands Telephone +31-(0)20-6261897, Fax 6271897 Email
t.tijen {AT} cable.a2000.nl: Tjebbe van Tijen

-----------------------
UNBOMBING 90 YEARS LIST
-----------------------

The following list is only the first attempt to make an overview of aerial
bombings in this century. The aim is to list all bombings that have hurt
or killed humans, damaged or destroyed human habitat. The official aim of
an aerial raid, 'just hitting economic targets', 'precision bombing' of
terrorist, dictators, criminals, name it, has not been my main concern. I
have listed any attack that has hit humans and their habitat and also have
included cases which need to be checked if such casualties might have
occurred. My point of view is not military history, neither a viewpoint
from a particular nation or group of nations. My attempt will be to make a
list of towns and rural areas that have been hit, a list as complete as
possible. The sources I have used for this first sketch are listed below,
and of course most of them tend to be rather biased. Only in one book (by
Janusz Pikalkiewicz) there is an attempt to systematically give
contemporary war dispatches from both sides, but also here the voice of
civilians is not yet heard. There is an inherent streak of colonialism in
the lack of geographic detailing of bombardments on non-European targets.
One just reads 'China, North Korea or North Vietnam, have been heavily
bombed', but how heavy, and which towns or areas, is not detailed, while
the same book will give much more details on bombing attacks on Great
Britain or Germany. No doubt there will be sources enough to fill in the
white areas and spots in the map of the bombed areas of the world, but
this will need research of local sources in many different languages. The
aim is to bring, at a further stage, this database 'on-line' on the
Internet so many people from all over the world can help to do the
documentary work, share their knowledge. 

This list, as said, is just the very first beginning and several
definition and descriptive problems need to be solved. Topographical names
tend to change over time, as border lines are pushed in wars towns are
shifting from one nation to another and often change name in the process.
The same process happens with countries that appear and disappear. The
list below is still full of names that can be debated, or need better
detailing. The same goes about the dating of aerial attacks. Many towns or
areas have been attacked repeatedly during a war, and some even in several
different wars. One example is London that has been bombed by zeppelins
and airplanes from the German emperor in the First World War and has also
been attacked by airplanes and rockets send in by Adolf Hitler during the
Second World War. Does each singular attack to be listed, or is it better
to summarise them as series of attacks. As I see it now, the last
possibility is the best, because too much academic completeness will
generate such an amount of information that the impact might be lost. Too
rough figures have the opposite effect, so a balance must be found. The
idea is to use in a later stage icons to generate visual statistics that
give the needed insight, make quantities understandable and comparable. 

Who has been bombed and , of course also, who have been bombing.
Definition problems here also, and a need for a lot more detailing. The
number of people who died in aerial attacks, were wounded, became
homeless, areas that have been destroyed, all this needs to be quantified.
And than, of course, also how many airplanes, rockets, tonnage of bombs,
explosive power, was used and what was the price of human lives, all the
pilots and other personnel, the ground assistance, the ammunition
workers... Of course this side will not be forgotten. Last the unfortunate
mistakes that are part of the game, airplanes lost in the fog, bombing
their own towns, attacks on the wrong target, holding an aerial photograph
up side down, a typing mistake in a computer, and other human mistakes.
There are several clear examples and also not so clear ones, because
nobody likes to admit a mistake. With all this in mind you are ready to
read the first version of 90 years of aerial bombing of humans and their
habitat. 

Sources for Unbombing database:

A guide to the reports of the United States Strategic Bombing survey/Gordan
Daniels (199-)
Blankest of fire/Kenneth P. Werrell (1996)
Crimes of war/Richard A. Falk... (1973)
Dictionary of wars/George C. Kohn (1986)
Encyclopedia of the Second World War/Bryan Perrett .. (1989)
Luftkrieg 1939-1945/Janusz Pikalkiewicz (1978)
The Bomber Command war diaries/Martin Middlebrook ... (1985)
The century of warfare *1900...)/Charles Messenger (1995)
The people's chronology/James trager (1992)
Timelines of war/David Brownstone ... (1994)
Traume in Trummern/Werner Durth ... (1993)
02:Nicaragua: guerrilla stronholds of Sandino (1928) USA Air Force
04:Austria: Pola (Adriatic coast) (1915-1916) Italian Air Force
04:Belgium: Antwerp (1943-1945) USA Air Force/Luftwaffe (V2)
04:Belgium: Brussels (194?) Luftwaffe (V2)
04:Belgium: Liege (1944-1945) Luftwaffe (V2)
04:Belgium: Ostend (194?)
04:Belgium: Tournai (1944) Luftwaffe (V2)
04:Czechoslovakia: Pilsen (1942-) RAF
04:Finland: Helsinki (1939) Soviet Union
04:France: Angers (194?)
04:France: Arras (1944) Luftwaffe
04:France: Billancourt (194?)
04:France: Boulogne (194?)
04:France: Brest (1943) Allied Forces
04:France: Caen (1944) RAF
04:France: Calais (194?)
04:France: Cannes (194?)
04:France: Cherbourg (194?)
04:France: Clermont-Ferrand (194?)
04:France: Dunkirk (194?)
04:France: Gennevilliers (194?)
04:France: Juvisy (194?)
04:France: La Pallice (194?)
04:France: Le Creusot (194?)
04:France: Le Havre (1944) RAF
04:France: Le Mans (194?)
04:France: Lille (1942, 1944) USA Air Force/Luftwaffe
04:France: Lorient (1943) RAF
04:France: Meulan (194?)
04:France: Modane (194?)
04:France: Montbeliard (194?)
04:France: Orleans (194?)
04:France: Paris (1914, 1944) German Army airplanes/Luftwaffe
04:France: Paris (Boulogne Bilancourt) (1942) RAF
04:France: Poitiers (194?)
04:France: Rouen (1944) USA Air Force
04:France: Royan (1945) RAF
04:France: Saumur (194?)
04:France: St. Medartd en Jalles (194?)
04:France: St. Nazaire (1943) Allied Forces
04:France: Tourcoing (1944) Luftwaffe (V2)
04:France: Tours (194?)
04:France: Trappes (194?)
04:France: Vaires (194?)
04:Germany: Aachen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Augsburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bad Kreuznach (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bamberg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bautzen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bayreuth (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Berchtegaden (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Berlin (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bielefeld (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bingen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bocholt (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bochum (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bohlen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bonn (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bremen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Bremerhaven (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Brunswick (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Castrop Rauxel (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Chemnitz (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Cottbus (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Cuxhaven (1943) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Darmstadt (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Desau (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Dresden (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Duisburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Duren (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Dusseldorf (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Eilenburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Eisenach (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Emden (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Emmerich (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Erfurt (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Essen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Flensburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Flensburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Frankfurt am Oder (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Frankfurt an Main (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Freiburg (1939-1945) Luftwaffe/Allied Forces
04:Germany: Friederichshafen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Fulda (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Gelsenkirchen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Gelsenkirchen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Gera (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Goppingen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Gotha (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Gutersloh (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Hagen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Halberstadt (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Halle (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Hamburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Hamm (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Hanau (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Hannover (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Hannover (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Heide (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Hildesheim (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: industrial targets (?) (1917) British aircrafts
04:Germany: Ingolstadt (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Jena (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Kaiserlautern (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Karlsruhe (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: KasselFulda (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Kiel (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Kleve (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Koblenz (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Koln (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Krefeld (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Leipzig (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Leverkusen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Lubeck (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Ludwigshafen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Magdeburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Mannheim (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Meiningen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Merseburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Monchen Gladbach (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Munich (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Munster (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Neubrandenburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Neuss (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Neusterlitz (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Neuwied (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Nordhausen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Nuremberg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Oberhausen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Offenbach (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Offenburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Oranienburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Osnabruck (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Paderborn (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Pforzheim (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Pirmasens (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Plauen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Potsdam (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Prenzlau (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Rathenow (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Regensburg (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Remscheid (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Rennes (1943) RAF
04:Germany: Rheine (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Rositz (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Rostock (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Saarlouis (1942) RAF
04:Germany: Sarbrucken (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Schweinfurt (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Soest (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Solingen (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: south-western Germany (1918) French Air Force/British Air Force
04:Germany: Stralsund (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Straubing (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Stuttgart (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Trier (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Ulm (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Ulm (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Wesel (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Wiesbaden (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Wilhelmshaven (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Wismar (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Witten (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Worms (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Wuppertal (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Zeitz (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Germany: Zwickau (1939-1945) Allied Forces
04:Gibraltar: Gibraltar (1940) French Air Force
04:Great Brittian: Birmingham (1940-1941) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Bristol-Avonmouth (1940-1941) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Coventry (1940-1941) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Glasgow (1940-1941) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Gloucester (1944) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Hull (1940-1941) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Liverpool (1940-1941) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: London (1915,  1916, 1940-1945) German Zeppelin
attacks/German airplanes/Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Manchester (1940-1941, 1944) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Norwich (1944) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Plymouth Devonport (1940-1941) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Portsmouth (1940-1941) Luftwaffe
04:Great Brittian: Southampton (1940-1941, 1944) Luftwaffe
04:Greece: Elbasan (1941) RAF
04:Greece: Kattavia (Rhodos) (1941) RAF
04:Hungary: Budapest (1944) USA Air Force
04:Hungary: Debrecen (1944) USA Air Force
04:Hungary: Diosgyor (1944) RAF
04:Italy: Bari (1943) Luftwaffe
04:Italy: Genua (1942) RAF
04:Italy: La Spezia (1943) RAF
04:Italy: Milano (1942, 1943) RAF
04:Italy: Naples (1942) USA Air Force
04:Italy: Rome (1943) Allied Forces
04:Italy: Taranto (1940) RAF
04:Italy: Torino (1943) RAF
04:Lituania: Konigsberg (Kalingrad) (1943) Soviet Union Air Force/RAF
04:Lituania: Tilsit (Sovetsk) (1943) Soviet Union Air Force
04:Luxembourg: Luxembourg (194?) Luftwaffe
04:Malta: La Valetta (1941-1945) Luftwaffe/Italian Air Force
04:Netherlands: Den Haag (194?) RAF
04:Netherlands: Den Helder (194?) RAF
04:Netherlands: Eindhoven (1942) RAF
04:Netherlands: Enschede (194?) RAF
04:Netherlands: Hengelo (194?) RAF
04:Netherlands: IJmuiden (1945) RAF
04:Netherlands: Maastricht (1944) Luftwaffe
04:Netherlands: Rotterdam (1940, 194?) Luftwaffe/RAF
04:Netherlands: Vlissingen (194?) RAF
04:Norway: Oslo (1942) RAF
04:Norway: Trontheim (1943) USA Air Force
04:Poland: Danzig (1943) Soviet Union Air Force/USA Air Force
04:Poland: Drohobycz (1944) USA Air Force
04:Poland: Gotenhafen (Gdingen) (1943) USA Air Force
04:Poland: Insterburg (1943) Soviet Union Air Force
04:Poland: Polish front (1915) German Zeppelin attacks
04:Poland: Warsaw (1939) Luftwaffe
04:Rumania: Ploesti (1943-1944) USA Air Force
04:Russia: (German front ?) (1914-1917) Czar's Squadron of Flying Ships
04:Soviet Union: Leningrad (1941-1944) Luftwaffe
04:Soviet Union: Moscow (1941) Luftwaffe
04:Soviet Union: Sebastopol (1942) Luftwaffe
04:Spain: Bilbao (1937) Luftwaffe?
04:Spain: Guernica (1937) Luftwaffe
04:Spain: Madrid (1937) Luftwaffe
04:Yugoslavia: Belgrade (1941) Luftwaffe
04:Yugoslavia: Rijeka (Fiume) (1919) Force led by Gabriele d'Annanunzio
05:Egypt: Cairo (subburbs) (1970) Israelian Air Force
05:Egypt: Port Said (1956) RAF/French Air Force
05:Eritrea: Asmera (1941) RAF
05:Ethiopia:  (1935) Italian Air Force
05:Ethiopia: Debra Tabor (1941) RAF
05:Lybia: Tobruk (1941)
05:Lybia: Tripoli (1911) Italian Air Force
05:Lybia: Tripoli Quadaffi's headquarters (1986) USA Air Force
05:Marocco: Casablanca (1942) Luftwaffe
05:Marocco: (Spaanse Marokko) (1923) Spanish Army/French troops/German
Chemicals
06:Irak: Amara (1941) RAF
06:Irak: Bagadad (1990) USA Air Force
06:Irak: Osirak nuclear reactor (1981) Israelian Air Force
06:Iran: airfields (1980) Iraq Air Force
06:Iran: Kharg Island oil terminal (1985) Iraq Air Force
06:Libanon: Beirut (1980) Israelian Air Force
06:Libanon: guerrilla bases .... (1970) Israelian Air Force
06:Middle East: (tribal people) (1920-) RAF
06:North Yemen: border war with South Yemen (1979)
06:Palestine:  (1918) British aircrafts
06:Syria: Damascus (1925) French Air Force
07:Afghanistan: Kabul (1979) Soviet Union Air Force
07:Bangladesh: Dakka (1972) Indian Air Force
07:Burma: Mandalay Fort Dufferin (1945) RAF
07:Cambodia: communist bases ... (1969) USA Air Force
07:China: Hanchow (1937) Japanese Air Force
07:China: Hankow (?) (1938) Japanese Air Force
07:China: Nanking (1937) Japanese Air Force
07:China: Shanghai (?) (1937) Japanese Air Force
07:China: Tientsin (1937) Japanese Air Force
07:Hong Kong: Hong Kong (1941) Japanese Air Force
07:India: North-West Frontiier (1920) RAF
07:Indonesia: Nonokromo (1944) Allied Forces
07:Indonesia: Surabaja (1944) Allied Forces
07:Japan: Akashi (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Amagasakmi (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Aomori (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Chiba (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Choshi (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Fukui (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Fukuoka (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Fukuyama (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Gifu (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Hachioji (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Hamamatsu (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Himeji (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Hiratsuka (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Hiroshima (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Hitachi (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Ichinomiya (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Imabari (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Isezaki (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Kagoshima (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Kawasaki (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Kobe (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Kochi (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Kofu (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Kumagaya (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Kumamoto (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Kure (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Kuwana (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Maebashi (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Matsuyama (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Mito (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Miyakonojo (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Miyazaki (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Moji (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Nagaoka (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Nagasaki (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Nagoya (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Nishinomiya (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Nobeoka (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Numazu (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Ogaki (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Oita (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Okayama (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Okazaki (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Omura (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Omuta (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Osaka (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Saga (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Sakai (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Sasebo (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Sendai (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Shimizu (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Shimonoseki (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Shizuoka (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: T oyohashi (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Takamatsu (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Tokushima (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Tokyo (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Touyama (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Toyama (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Tsu (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Tsuruga (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Ube (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Ujiyamada (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Utsonomiya (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Uwajima (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Wakayama (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Yawata (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Yokkaichi (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Japan: Yokohama (1942-1945) USA Air Force
07:Laos: North Vietnamese supply depots ... (1971) USA Air Force
07:Manchuria: Mukden (Anschan) (1944) USA Air Force
07:Manchuria: needs further detailing (1951) USA Air Force
07:North Korea: May dams bombed (1953) USA Air Force
07:North Vietnam: Ben Tre (1968) USA Air Force
07:North Vietnam: Chaudoc (1968) USA Air Force
07:North Vietnam: Haiphong (1972) USA Air Force
07:North Vietnam: Hanoi (1967, 1968, 1972) USA Air Force
07:North Vietnam: Hue (1968) USA Air Force
07:North Vietnam: Mytho (1968) USA Air Force
07:North Vietnam: Ninh Binh (1967-1968) USA Air Force
07:North Vietnam: North Vietnam *needs further detailing) (1965, 1968,
1972) USA Air Force
07:North Vietnam: Phuly (1967) USA Air Force
07:North Vietnam: Thanh Hoa (1967-1968) USA Air Force
07:South Korea: Seoul (1950, 1951) North Korean Forces ?
07:South Vietnam: Da Nang area *chemical bombardments) (1965) USA Air Force
07:South Vietnam: Duchai (1965) USA Air Force
07:Taiwan: (Formoasa) (1944) USA Air Force
07:Thailand: Bangkok (1944) USA Air Force
08:Marian Islands: Saipan (1944) Japanese Air Force
08:New Guinea: Hollandia (1944) USA Air Force
08:New Guinea: Port Moresby (1942) Japanese Air Force
08:Solomon Islands: Sizo (1942) USA Air Force




Tjebbe van Tijen

Imaginary Museum Projects (IMP), Amsterdam

Background information on:
http://www.iisg.nl/~tvt/index.html

Do check the upcoming Next 5 Minutes conference on:
http://www.n5m.org/index.html

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