geert lovink on Tue, 18 Mar 2003 09:09:31 +0100 (CET)

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<nettime> Lieven de Cauter: The people vs. 'Total War Incorporated'

Via: "Barbara Vanderlinden" <>

From: "Lieven Test" <>

(Dear all, please read this letter and forward it, if you like it,
worldwide. [if you received it before, this is a more definitive version] If
you have serious suggestions to help this peace action go forward, mail me.)

The people vs. 'Total War INCorporated'

(an Open Letter to Jacques Derrida and the intellectuals, artists and
students around the globe, and to whom it may concern)

Dear Prof Derrida, and dear prof. Wallerstein, dear prof Chomsky, dear prof
Agamben, dear prof Kristeva, dear prof. Haraway, dear prof. Badiou, dear
Prof. Said, dear prof. Zizek, dear prof. Sloterdijk, dear prof. Castells,
dear Prof Petrella, dear prof Jameson, dear Isabel Allende, dear Vaclav
Havel, dear prof Amin Malouf,  dear dr. honoris causa Salman Rusdie, and all
the intellectuals, artists and students of planet earth....,

I have send this open letter - about the fact that (in one word) 'The
Project for a New American Century', the master think thank behind this war,
is preaching and planning crimes against humanity - already to the all the
people mentioned underneath (- I still miss the e-mail address of Jacques
Derrida and a few others).

The idea is to start a sort of Russell tribunal, or indeed a
'Derrida-Tribunal' against the PNAC (more specifically the authors of the
(in)famous report 'Rebuilding America's Defenses', published by the PNAC in
September 2000. This could be completed by a real (pre emptive) complaint
against the authors and their organisation for "openly planning and
preaching crimes against humanity. (to be laid down at  The High Court for
Human Rights in Geneva, Belgium and in Israel, where apparently there is
also a law to prosecute crimes against humanity at an international scale).
Even according to specialists, a pre-emptive complaint could be laid down at
the international tribunal in the Hague against Bush, Blair and Aznar for
planning a "aggressive war" in strict violation of International Law. If
they go with UN-mandate. If Ircq had no right to invade Kuwait without
permission of the UN, then the USA or any other state has the right to
invade Iracq without permission if the UN. It's as simple as that, and
everybody knows it. Even they know it.

Please read the articles underneath and, if possible, react. Any reaction is
welcome. I have already telephonic reaction from Giorgio Agamben and
Riccardo Petrella, who favour action, and a written, rather critical
reaction from prof. Martin Jay, who severally warms me for anti-semitism.
This is a spontaneaus reaction from Richard Plunz (not meant for publication
no doubt, but then he will laugh about it when he finds out. He is a
professor of Urban Design at Columbia): "Lieven:Yes, it is all true. We are
being commandeered by the fascists - now is the first time I begin to
understand what it was to be on the Italian left in 1933. Here the things
you write about are known, but we are in a shambles.
They intend their war no matter what. Keep screaming! Richard"
Thank you very much for your time. I hope that, after reading the three
articles included, you won't regret the time it took. Feel free to forward
this message to all those (great minds and lesser gods) I forgot.

With deep respect,

Lieven De Cauter


(I) The key to this war: The educational war plans of the PNAC

By Lieven De Cauter

The acronym PNAC is the key to GWII (the second Gulf War). Did you know?
I didn't.  In the spring of 1997 neo-conservatives Robert Kagan and
William Kristol of  The Weekly Standard founded 'The Project for a New
American Century' (PNAC).  Richard Perle appears to be another founding
member.  Other distinguished founding members in the early days were:
Dick Cheney, Donald Rumsfeld, and Jeb Bush, brother of Bush II.  Then
there are also Richard Armitage, currently 'Deputy Secretary of State';
Robert Zoellick, currently Secretary of State for Foreign Trade; I.
Lewis Libby, Cheney's right hand man as well as Zalmay Khalilzad,
special envoy for Afghanistan.  Paul Wolfowitz, previously Professor in
International Politics and Dean of the Johns Hopkins University was
initially director but left the position to become Defence Advisor to
Bush Jr.  The current director is Gary Schmitt.  The PNAC describes
itself as "an non-profit, educational organisation whose goal it is tot
to promote American global leadership".

Their mission statement is clear: "The history of the 20th century
should have taught us that it is important to shape circumstances before
crises emerge, and to meet threats before they become dire. The history
of this century should have taught us to embrace the cause of American
leadership."  Because American leaders (Clinton in the first place)
failed to comprehend this mission of world leadership, the Project for a
New American Century was launched. The PNAC's drew up an agenda to
achieve its mission.  Item one is to achieve a massive increase of the
defence budget and is a lever to achieve items 2 and 3: to challenge
regimes hostile towards our interests and values  and to accept the
responsibility for America's unique role in the preservation and
expansion of an international climate conducive to our safety,
prosperity and principles.

The first action of the PNAC consisted of an attempt to convince
Clinton, then president, to attack Iraq immediately.  They wrote him a
letter in 1998. But Clinton was not to be convinced.  A letter of may
1998 to likeminded chums such as extremely conservative Newt Gingrich
and senator Trent Lott is even more explicit:  "We should establish and
maintain a strong U.S. military presence in the region, and be prepared
to use that force to protect our vital interests in the Gulf - and, if
necessary, to help remove Saddam from power". Mark the hierarchy of
importance: first the permanent presence for 'vital interests' and then,
when necessary, taking Saddam as a case. What are these vital interests?
Although specialists never tire to tell us that oil is not at stake
here, there is an obvious connection between those 'vital interests' and
the fact that most of those involved are, often very directly (like
Cheney or Condoleeza Rice),  linked to the weapon and oil industries.
In September 2000, before Bush won the election, the PNAC published the
crucial report "Rebuilding America's Defences: Strategies, Forces And
Resources For A New Century", in which they state clearly that to attack
Saddam is but an alibi for American supremacy.  It was written by Thomas
Donnelly with the help of Donald Kagan of Yale University and Gary
Schmitt, but a whole list of people contributed to the thought processes
that lead to the report, amongst them some of the above founders like
William Kristol and I. Lewis Libby, and beside them: Alvin Bernstein of
National Defense Univeristy, Eliot Cohen of Johns Hopkins University,
David Epstein working at that time for the office of the Secretary of
Defense, Abram Schulsky of RAND corporation, James Lasswell of GAMA
Corporation Dov Zakheim of System Planning Corporation and others. One
name I want to add, who is probably now the most important of all of
them: Paul Wolfowitz, now a crucial member of Bush jr.'s so called "War

I quote some striking ideas of this report: "The United States has for
decades sought to play a more permanent role in Gulf regional security.
While the unresolved conflict with Iraq provides the immediate
justification, the need for a substantial American force presence in the
Gulf transcends the issue of the regime of Saddam Hussein". (p.14)  In
other words, the fact that Saddam is only an alibi is not a figment of
the imagination of the protesters against this war, it is stated
explicitly by its master minds.  (And: as early as 2000). The report
argued for a large-scale upgrade of the army and estimated a budgetary
increase of 15 to 20 billion dollars per year would be required to
transform the army into a kind of imperial super force, keeping the lead
in  "the revolution in military affairs".  However, PNAC was well aware
that this would not be plain sailing: "The process of transformation, is
likely to be a long one, absent some catastrophic and catalyzing
event-like a new Pearl Harbor." (p. 51) This is a genuine quote.  Need I
say more?  However, there is more.  One of the core tasks of the
transformed American army is "to fight and decisively win multiple,
simultaneous major theatre wars". (p. IV. find the complete text of this
report on - ).  How about that for a shining
and truly educational programme, worthy of an educational non-profit
organisation? Truly unbelievable,  but really true.  This PNAC report is
nothing less then a  roadmap to Empire - both the book and the science
fiction series. In any case, following such a brilliant report the
'Project for a New American Century' could only prosper.  With Bush in
power, Dick Cheney as Vice President and Donald Rumsfeld as Minister of
External Affairs, the PNAC became lord and master of the foreign
politics of the White House.

And then there was nine eleven. Suddenly the New American Century had
arrived: the long and eagerly awaited "catastrophic and catalysing"
event had occurred. Cheney, Rumsfeld and Co must have considered it a
real God sent.  It was an immediate justification for agenda item 1: a
massive increase in the defence budget. Ian Lustick, professor in
foreign politics and Middle-East-specialist at the University of
Pennsylvania, stated:  "9/11, which had nothing to do with Iraq,
produced a gigantic political capital that allowed the government to do
whatever they saw fit, as long as they could connect it with national
security and the Middle East".  According to a report from NBS
television, an enthusiastic Rumsfeld scribbled down in telegram style,
the definitive plan from the still smoking Pentagon as follows: "best
info fast. Judge whether good enough [to] hit S.H. at the same time. Not
only UBL. .. Go massive. Sweep it all up. Things related and not."   For
S.H. read Saddam Hoessein, and for UBL read Usama Bin Laden and the
message becomes exceedingly clear:  "all we need now is the right
information to find an alibi for a massive attack on Saddam". The real
purpose is (according to the mission statement en report van de PNAC,
cited above): to reinforce the American military and industrial world
supremacy through a 'total war' (an expression of co-founder Richard
Perle), such as The war on terrorism, the cleansing of Afghanistan and
now the cleansing of the Gulf (and soon of Columbia). "Multiple,
simultaneous major theatre wars" with as motto:  ".. Go massive. Sweep
it all up. Things related and not."  That is painfully clear.  It is the
real briefing for the troops, as they will shout in the near future
'Hell breaks loose'.

Professor Lustick is of the view that the Jewish lobby, rather than oil,
is behind the war schemes of the PNAC.  The 'Jewish' logic appears to be
that a forceful attack on Saddam would destroy the resolve of the
Palestinians and tempt them into signing a peace deal the terms of which
can be completely dictated by Israel.  A logic Lustic considers deeply
flawed. He views 'this war plan as a triumph of simple ideology over the
messy realities of global politics'.  His conclusion is blunt:  "This is
not a war against fanatics, but a war of fanatics - our fanatics".
(with thanks to  William Bunch, writing for 'Philadelphia Daily News',
and to  Kurt Nimmo writing for Counter Punch, November 2002 and
Christopher Bollyn, writing for American Free Press)

(II) Meet the Master Minds: Dick Cheney, Vice President of the United Oil,
Military and Drugs Industry

To document the practice behind the PNAC-theory we pick a case study:
Dick Cheney. He is, beside being Vice President of the United States of
America and founding member of the  'Project for a New American
Century'(PNAC), the main individual shareholder of the giant
transnational Halliburton, one of the flagships of the American
industry. Brown & Root is an important corporation of the Halliburton
group. In a hair raising article, Michael C. Rupert, ex LAPD agent,
writes the following:  "Of all the American companies dealing directly
with the US military and providing cover for CIA operations, few firms
can match the global presence of this giant construction powerhouse
which employs 20,000 people in more than 100 countries. Through its
sister companies or joint ventures, Brown & Root can build offshore oil
rigs, drill wells and construct and operate everything from harbours and
pipelines to highways and nuclear reactors. It can train and arm
security forces and it can now also feed, supply and house armies."
What one calls an all round firm.

Brown & Root is one of the largest partners of the American army. It
builds and provides logistics wherever the American army is present.  In
addition to dealing in pipelines and military logistics it specialises
in arms deals (e.g. with Iran in the late seventies).  On top of that it
is apparently also an expert provider of drug pipelines.  Currently it
appears engaged in a Colombian-American joint venture, called
Corfinsura, consisting of large building works for the Colombian
Antioquia drug syndicate, with headquarters in Meddellin.  Brown & Root
purchased and leased gigantic amounts of land in Colombia (estimated to
be in the order of one billion square meters), which can be transformed
into military camps at the stroke of a pen, in case of an invasion by
the American army - an invasion that, according to the newspapers, has
started surreptitiously.

Dick Cheney is a specialist in al sorts of fields. "As the Bush
Secretary of Defense during Desert Shield/Desert Storm (1990-91), Cheney
also directed special operations involving Kurdish rebels in northern
Iran. The Kurds' primary source of income for more than 50 years has
been heroin smuggling from Afghanistan and Pakistan through Iran, Iraq
and Turkey." (ibid.).  Brown & Root picked its share, as it did in
Kosovo, where Cheney's company earned hundreds of millions of dollars
building facilities for the America army and where it still has a
presence.  And as the Kosovo Liberation Army controlled 70% of the
European heroin import.

In 2000 the Centre for Public Integrity (CPI) (2000)
published a report entitled "Cheney Led Halliburton to Feast at Federal
Trough".  According to this report Halliburton, under Cheney's
leadership, received 3.8 billion dollars in federal contracts and
government loans, mainly via Brown & Root.  The loans were transferred
via two banks, Exim and Opic.  According to reliable sources those banks
are CIA infiltrated and regularly distribute NOC (Non Official Cover,
the code for drugs) to their officers.  Etc. etc.
Group Alpha, a Russian banking conglomerate, traffics in oil and drugs.
Via loans to Brown & Root it managed to launder this money, which in
turn enabled Brown & Root to extend its oil drillings in Russia.  (I
present the key lines only, based on a report of the CPI, and the above
mentioned article of Michael Rupert, since it would take ten volumes to
unravel the intricate schemes involved).  The Alpha Group is also in
cahoots with Gilberto Rodriguez, currently in prison and the boss of the
Kali drug cartel.  Most importantly, much of this laundered money was
subsequently used to finance Bush's election campaign.  And then there
is Richard Armitage, also a member of the idealistic educational
organisation PNAC, involved in drug trafficking in Laos.
Besides war, drugs, military logistics and the weapon industry, oil
plays a key role.  Whatever else can be said, the connection between the
Bush dynasty, the oil industry and Halliburton, where Bush sr. started
his career, appears to be conveniently forgotten nowadays.  Perhaps Bush
and Cheney intend to rebuild the Iraqi oilfields via Brown & Root, or
exploit them via (via via) Halliburton.  Or via Chevron Oil, which
counts Condooleza Rice amongst its board members.  Turkey however, does
not agree with that strategy where it concerns Northern Iraq.  Or
perhaps they just intend to destroy the Iraqi oilfields, that is another
way to compete. Did Machiavelli not advocate to "Destroy your enemies"?
Even if there were no oil profits to be gained, this war would prove to
be a goldmine for Brown & Root, as the key logistics company of the
American army.  As a  captain of Industry and politician Cheney and his
companions will always win, either way. 'Vested interests' is putting it
very mildly indeed.

To cut a long story short, the destruction as well as the regeneration
of Iraq would provide a golden opportunity for Brown & Root, and hence
for Halliburton and therefore also for Dick Cheney, Vice President of
the United States.  One wonders why the press does not or only
marginally covers this sort of crucial information.  It beggars belief
on two fronts: that this is happening and that we don't seem to know
about it.  You can read all about it  in Michael C. Rupert's article:
The Bush-Cheney Drug Empire (2001), Nexus Magazine, 8, 2 or on the
following web site:  But, as the saying goes:
"Who wants to know".  Schemes from Medellin to Moscow.  and time and
time again Brown & Root. How come we don't know any of this?  Even if
only half of it was true (although I rather suspect it is only the tip
of the iceberg), doesn't this really change the whole picture?  Now it
really does make sense why Bush, Cheney and co are hell bent on this
war.  It is just golden business opportunity.

In the New American Century politics, military logic, economics and
organised crime have become a seamless continuum, one large global
casino.  Of course you can shrug your shoulders and say wearily:
"Nothing ever changes, same as it ever was".  However, armed with such
information we can at least debunk the sickly rhetorics of those poker
players and the pathetic arguments of so called trustworthy politicians
such as Blair, as well as the superficial small talk of most newspaper
articles.  And we can become aware that Cheney and his chums are true
"World history personalities" (a term coined by Hegel to describe
figures such as Napoleon).  They are competent professionals: Many Birds
with One Stone. That is the key to the great "Project for a New American
Century".  Hence it better be a very large stone.  A bazooka in the
bowling game of the Middle East.

(III) A Key to Peace : 'The People vs. Total War INCorpotated.'?

 I could continue this series about the PNAC , The Project for a New
American Century, and it's tentacles endlessly.  It is a genuine Hydra.
There is: the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research
(AEI), displaying its vested interests proudly in its name, the
Committee for Peace and Security in the Gulf (CPSG), they are de
precussors of the PNAC and a group of which I assume to be another 'self
help group for idealists' and the Iracqui National Congress (INC), which
aims to organise the opposition and hence the next Iraqi government,
under the watchful supervision of General Wayne Downing. Not to mention
"The committee for the liberation of Iracq", a sister or daughter
organisation of the PNAC. Its president is Bruce Jackson, a major
contractor for Lockheed Martin. It beggars belief.  The Committee for
the Liberation of Iraq is nothing less than an NGO for the weapons
industry. Named Bruce Jackson is also the person behind the letter of
the 'Ten of Vilnius', the ten Baltic Nations that signed up for the war
(who knows under what pressure of blackmail or promises from our
Lockheed boy).   At least now we know why.  Jackson favours the
liberation of Iraq in order to sell as many weapons as possible.  It
really is that simple, and that cynical.  Why does the press not expose
that Mr. Jackson works (behind the scenes) for the Bush administration
but also for Lockheed Martin?  It certainly sheds an interesting light
on the situation.  This man is obviously a true idealist, that much is

God have mercy on America, that is should be led by this outfit  (I
can't really find a suitable name for them) to a New American Century.
It appears wise to attack this section of the Bush administration
preemptively (isn't that currently all the rage?) by accusing them of
crimes against humanity.  One can't fail.  The grand wisdom, the deep
insights and the broad vision of the European 'Atlantists' (politicians,
scholars, journalists) become immortal, and especially painfully
risible, if one begins to explore those figureheads and their
machinations. It only takes a careful reading of the report "Rebuilding
America's Defences: Strategies, Forces And Resources For A New Century".
But time is of the essence. We know enough. The Project for a New
American Century is the real design team and master-mind behind this

The situation defies belief on two levels: that this Project for a New
American Century truly exists, and that I and millions of others with
me, had no knowledge of its existence.  Of course the reply of
journalists and other specialists is bound to be: "But everybody knew",
the implication being that I am a mere amateur meddling in affairs of
experts.  Granted.  But the world is too important to leave it in the
capable hands of specialists and so called experts.  So much is clear,
once again.  So accept my sincere apologies for my ignorance.   What I
would like to know is why all knowing journalists are so silent on the
subject of the comings and goings of the PNAC.  PNAC is not good news,
but it does provide an opportunity for good journalism.  So whence this
respectful silence?  I really would like to have an answer to that

So what's the conclusion?  This war is a conspiracy of the PNAC, despite
your and my aversion of conspiracy theories.  It appears to be true, the
only truth to be found about this disgusting war.  There are of course
supplementary conspiracy theories to be explored, like the one about
Rupert Murdoch and his media empire, with tens of newspapers (e.g. the
Sun), supporting this war with a vengeance.

That Chirac sold his soul to Elf, or that Louis Michel, the Belgian
minister of Foreign Affairs, is a lackey of France -  just because he
stated not to be a lackey of the United States - makes no difference:
this war is a world wide conspiracy of scavengers.  Heavy terminology, I
know. But one would have a hard time convincing me that people such as
Bruce Jackson, one of the most innocuous ones of the lot, are not
scavengers?  Do try.  The evidence against Cheney is so overwhelming I
would not begin to consider withdrawing my accusation.

Mister President, you are surrounded not by hawks, but by scavengers.  I
implore you to publicly condemn the cynical idea of "Total War", as
Richard Perle(mann) neatly summarises the basic tenet of the PNAC,
before it is too late.  Because total war leads to the demise of
hundreds of thousands of human beings, and perhaps even to your own
political demise.  History will condemn you.  Repent.  Listen to the
appeal of the highest representatives of your own church community, the
United Methodist Church.  This war is in contradiction with the bible
and the message of Jesus Christ. I have no time for theological debates
here, but I suspect they are right.  As you well know.  But, then Mister
President, how could I bring you to change your mind.

However, let's not surrender to the inevitability of the war schemes of
the PNAC (soon to be exported to Colombia).  Journalists and
intellectuals of the world pick up your pen and declare war to
despicable organisations such as  the Project for a New American Century
and  The Committee for the liberation of Iraq. Now is the time for a
holy anger: a fronde of intellectuals, artists and students, a 'crusade
against the Evil Force at work in Empire', a true 'Jihad of Enlightenment':
'Écrasez  L'infame désinformation' (let us destroy the infamous
misinformation, to paraphrase Voltaire), under the eternal motto of
Kant: 'Sapere aude', dare to know.

Reading the report of the PNAC sheds a bright light on the dark and
murky basis for this war. They want "to fight and decively win multiple,
simultaneous major theatre wars".  We need to imprint this phrase, which
was coined already in 2000 (I can't emphasise this often enough), in the
consciousness of humanity, because it is the truth, the only and
veritable truth behind this war.

Because time is running out, I dream of the following action plan.
First step: we establish a Russell Tribunal.  As jurors I propose people
such as Frederick Jameson, Manuel Castells, Giorgio Agamben, Ricardo
Petrella, Ricardo Boff, Eward Said, Emanuel Wallerstein, Alain
Finkielkraut, Amin Malouf, Edward Said, Woody Allen, you name it.  I
would choose Jacques Derrida to preside. Antonio Negri could be the
chief prosecutor (although that might be tricky, he'd be refused). But
then Noam Chomsky would even be better for the job. For the defence
council. well, up to them really, although I would recommend Paul
Wolfowitz himself, member of the PNAC and previously vice chancellor of
John Hopkins University, and now a key figure in the Bush II War
cabinet.  A heavyweight as Wolfowitz would surely do justice to the
cause of the defence.

The second: headed by Amnesty International, Lawyers without frontiers, and
joined by Medicin Sans Frontieres, Voluntary Services Overseas, Greenpeace,
Oxfam, and all other independent NGOs,  a completed report should be
presented : an estimation of the humaninatarian, social, economical and
ecological 'cost' and consequences of the PNAC-report. The conclusion would
consist of depositing an emergency 'pre enptive'
complaint at the International Court of Den Hague, or any where else
(Belgian has such a 'genocide law', but Israel has such a law aswell,
specialists say) . The PNAC is to be accused of open and repeated incitement
and planning of crimes against humanity.  A media covered
monster trial.  J'accuse! The third action is legal action against Bush,
Blair and Aznar: a pre-emptive complaint for intending to violate
international law by planning an "aggressive war" as stipulated in all the
conventions and threaties since WWII.   If they go with UN-mandate. If Iracq
had no right to invade Kuwait without permission of the UN, then the USA or
any other state has the right to invade Iracq without permission if the UN.
It's as simple as that, and everybody knows it. Even they know it.

A fourth action should be to convince the American students, academics,
artists and intellectuals to open their eyes before the PNAC closes them.
And many have their eyes wide open. To them we say to them, we mail from all
over: stand up. It is your fucking duty. We, all of us, will support you.
And why not: The fourth step is to be an international call for a worldwide
day of
strike and prayers.  Like the vigil of under the aegis of Desmond
Tutu. We ask the Pope, the chief Rabbi, the arch bisshops of the
Episcopelean church (church of Bush sr.), the head of United
Methodist Church (church of Bush jr.), and of course a whole selection
of Ayatollahs and Patriarchs, to call a day of deafening silence and
prayer for peace. We call upon all the trade unions to follow the example
and to all the NGO's to support the action. The action could be code-named:
Operation Desert Voice: The People (of Planet Earth) vs. 'Total War

Let's make this appointment now: If war breaks out in the days or hours to
come, we all go unto the street or home, or to the mosk or to the church, or
to the pub to look at CCN or Al Jazeera. We just quit. The day the people of
this earth declared a worldwide protest- Shabbat.
People tell me it's all utopian. Of course it is utopian. "Where danger
grows, grows the redemptive too" wrote Holderlin..But, alas, who am I? All
this is just a wet dream, I know. All too well.
But please tell me then that the PNAC and its machinations is just a
dream too. Just a nightmare. Pulp fiction. Or is this New Entropic
Imperial Order (as one could call it) - really real?
But then again, there is this desert voice of anger and resolution that
speaks in me and that I hear around me and it whispers:

"We, David, the People of Planet Earth can and . will defeat you, Goliath,
'Total War INCorporated'"

(It is to us to make that voice be heard. Even in the Desert. As Kennedy
said 'Ich binn ein Berliner', we will say: 'We are born in Bagdad'. And that
could be the best action of all: we move to Bagdad. The most famous and the
best of us. I for instance would proudly support the pope himself before he
kisses the ground of Bagdad Airport  He could whisper in all the Babylonian
languages of this earth:"We, David, the People of Planet Earth can and .
will defeat you, Goliath, 'Total War INCorporated'" )


Prof dr. L. F.M. De Cauter (he is independant writer and philosopher, he
teaches at several institutions in Belgium and the Netherlands. He published
 several books on art, architecture, and critical theory. He wrote a study
of the Jewish theology in the work of Walter Benjamin.)

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