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Re: [Nettime-nl] ????? Cultuur onderdeel vrijhandelsakkoorden??????
H S on Tue, 4 Feb 2003 20:03:01 +0100 (CET)


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Re: [Nettime-nl] ????? Cultuur onderdeel vrijhandelsakkoorden??????


Slechts voor de subsidie?

----- Original Message -----
From: "cep" <cepahs {AT} xs4all.nl>
To: <karoly.toth {AT} xs4all.nl>; "nettime-nl (E-mail)" <nettime-nl {AT} nettime.org>
Sent: Tuesday, February 04, 2003 4:53 PM
Subject: Re: [Nettime-nl] ????? Cultuur onderdeel vrijhandelsakkoorden??????


At 16:28 4-2-2003 +0100, Károly Tóth wrote:

>Boris Dittrich, D66 woordvoerder cultuur, vindt de keuze van de
>regering om de sectoren cultuur en audiovisueel deel te laten uitmaken van
>de GATS vrijhandelsaccoorden onbezonnen.
>http://www.d66.nl/nieuws/tknieuws/archief/001236.html#001236

Dacht dat zulks al was erkend als 'the cultural exception" binnen de GAtt
akkoorden :

         " After heated debates, these concerns were addressed in the
Uruguay Round's concluding negotiations, which did not insist on applying
all the GATT rules to film and audiovisual goods and services. Since then,
this tacit understanding has been known as the "cultural exception". As a
doctrine, (it does not have any legal status, nor does it exist as such in
any agreement or treaty), the 'cultural exception' is based on the
principle that culture is not like any other merchandise because it goes
beyond the commercial: cultural goods and services convey ideas, values and
ways of life which reflect a the plural identities of a country and the
creative diversity of its citizens.

         " A few years later, in 1999, and following the recommendations of
the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development held
in Stockholm in 1998, UNESCO brought together a group of experts to discuss
the issue Culture: A Form Of Merchandise Like No Other? The conclusions of
this symposium were inspired in the shared understanding that "culture was
not only a matter for the economy or an economic concept".
http://www.unesco.org/culture/industries/trade/html_eng/question16.shtml#16.

en :
         17. How is the "Cultural exception" applied?
http://www.unesco.org/culture/industries/trade/html_eng/question17.shtml#17.
         " The notion of cultural exception was "applied" during the GATS
negotiations: European Member States did not offer to liberalize services
in certain cultural sub-sectors and included a series of MFN exceptions to
the agreement, five of them in the audiovisual field.

         " Due to the "sensitive" nature and special characteristics of
cultural industries, the European Union refused to make an offer of
liberalization on audiovisual services (films, radio, television.), or on
services related to libraries, archives or museums. While market access and
national treatment rules do not affect these services, they apply to other
sectors for which liberalization commitments were adopted, such as
publishing, shows and architecture services. Most of WTO member states
followed this approach; only 14 countries out of the 45 to 50 negotiating
nations made specific commitments in this sector. Exceptions to MFN rule,
as explained above, still allow the European Union to develop public
policies to support the audiovisual sector, such as broadcasting (TV and
radio) quotas, financial aid (for production and distribution programmes
like MEDIA), regional co-production agreements (like Eurimages) and the
Directive "Television without frontiers".

         The doctrine of "cultural exception" was also reflected in the
decision to maintain Article IV of Part II of the GATT agreement. That
article relating to Cinematograph Films permits screen quotas to require
the exhibition of domestically made films for a specified minimum
proportion of total screen time. The GATT also maintains a general
exception for measures designed "to protect national treasures of artistic,
historic or archaeological value" (Article XX.f). All other cultural goods
- except for developed films and home-recorded videos -are subject to the
GATT disciplines.  "


Symposium of experts on Culture, the Market and Globalization
http://www.unesco.org/culture/industries/html_eng/reunion3.shtml
Organized in collaboration with the French National Commission for UNESCO
with the support of the Canadian and French Governments Paris, 14 - 15 June
1999 -  Conclusions


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______________________________________________________
* Verspreid via nettime-nl. Commercieel gebruik niet
* toegestaan zonder toestemming. <nettime-nl> is een
* open en ongemodereerde mailinglist over net-kritiek.
* Meer info, archief & anderstalige edities:
* http://www.nettime.org/.
* Contact: Menno Grootveld (grootveld {AT} nrc.nl).