|cep on Tue, 4 Feb 2003 16:54:01 +0100 (CET)|
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|Re: [Nettime-nl] ????? Cultuur onderdeel vrijhandelsakkoorden??????|
At 16:28 4-2-2003 +0100, Károly Tóth wrote: >Boris Dittrich, D66 woordvoerder cultuur, vindt de keuze van de >regering om de sectoren cultuur en audiovisueel deel te laten uitmaken van >de GATS vrijhandelsaccoorden onbezonnen. >http://www.d66.nl/nieuws/tknieuws/archief/001236.html#001236 Dacht dat zulks al was erkend als 'the cultural exception" binnen de GAtt akkoorden : " After heated debates, these concerns were addressed in the Uruguay Round’s concluding negotiations, which did not insist on applying all the GATT rules to film and audiovisual goods and services. Since then, this tacit understanding has been known as the "cultural exception". As a doctrine, (it does not have any legal status, nor does it exist as such in any agreement or treaty), the ‘cultural exception’ is based on the principle that culture is not like any other merchandise because it goes beyond the commercial: cultural goods and services convey ideas, values and ways of life which reflect a the plural identities of a country and the creative diversity of its citizens. " A few years later, in 1999, and following the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Conference on Cultural Policies for Development held in Stockholm in 1998, UNESCO brought together a group of experts to discuss the issue Culture: A Form Of Merchandise Like No Other? The conclusions of this symposium were inspired in the shared understanding that "culture was not only a matter for the economy or an economic concept". http://www.unesco.org/culture/industries/trade/html_eng/question16.shtml#16. en : 17. How is the "Cultural exception" applied? http://www.unesco.org/culture/industries/trade/html_eng/question17.shtml#17. " The notion of cultural exception was "applied" during the GATS negotiations: European Member States did not offer to liberalize services in certain cultural sub-sectors and included a series of MFN exceptions to the agreement, five of them in the audiovisual field. " Due to the "sensitive" nature and special characteristics of cultural industries, the European Union refused to make an offer of liberalization on audiovisual services (films, radio, television…), or on services related to libraries, archives or museums. While market access and national treatment rules do not affect these services, they apply to other sectors for which liberalization commitments were adopted, such as publishing, shows and architecture services. Most of WTO member states followed this approach; only 14 countries out of the 45 to 50 negotiating nations made specific commitments in this sector. Exceptions to MFN rule, as explained above, still allow the European Union to develop public policies to support the audiovisual sector, such as broadcasting (TV and radio) quotas, financial aid (for production and distribution programmes like MEDIA), regional co-production agreements (like Eurimages) and the Directive "Television without frontiers". The doctrine of "cultural exception" was also reflected in the decision to maintain Article IV of Part II of the GATT agreement. That article relating to Cinematograph Films permits screen quotas to require the exhibition of domestically made films for a specified minimum proportion of total screen time. The GATT also maintains a general exception for measures designed "to protect national treasures of artistic, historic or archaeological value" (Article XX.f). All other cultural goods – except for developed films and home-recorded videos –are subject to the GATT disciplines. " Symposium of experts on Culture, the Market and Globalization http://www.unesco.org/culture/industries/html_eng/reunion3.shtml Organized in collaboration with the French National Commission for UNESCO with the support of the Canadian and French Governments Paris, 14 - 15 June 1999 - Conclusions ______________________________________________________ * Verspreid via nettime-nl. Commercieel gebruik niet * toegestaan zonder toestemming. <nettime-nl> is een * open en ongemodereerde mailinglist over net-kritiek. * Meer info, archief & anderstalige edities: * http://www.nettime.org/. * Contact: Menno Grootveld (email@example.com).